The Sunday Class
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The   earliest   known   example   of   a   clockwork   mechanism   is   the   Antikythera   mechanism,   a   geared   analogue computer   from   1 st C   BC,   for   calculating   astronomical   positions   and   eclipses,   recovered   from   a   Greek   shipwreck. There   are   many   other   accounts   of   clockwork   devices   in   ancient   Greece,   including   in   its   mythology,   and   the mechanism   itself   is   sophisticated   enough   to   indicate   a   significant   history   of   lesser   devices   leading   up   to   its creation. At   some   point,   this   level   of   sophistication   in   clockwork   technology   was   lost   or   forgotten   in   Europe,   and   only returned   when   brought   from   the   Islamic   world   after   the   Crusades.   Clockwork   finally   recovered   the   equivalent   of pre-Roman technological levels in the 14 th  century. As   well   as   Archytas's   dove,   mentioned   by   Aulus   Gellius   (a   Roman   who   lived   in   Athens),   there   are   ambitious automation claims in the legends of other cultures. In   Jewish   legend,   Solomon   used   his   wisdom   to   design   a   throne   with   mechanical   animals   which   hailed   him   as   king when   he   ascended   it.   When   King   Solomon   stepped   upon   the   throne,   a   mechanism   was   set   in   motion,   such   that   as he   stepped   upon   the   first   step,   a   golden   ox   and   a   golden   lion   each   stretched   out   one   foot   to   support   him   and   help him   rise   to   the   next   step.   On   each   side,   the   animals   helped   the   King   up   until   he   was   comfortably   seated   upon   the throne.   Upon   sitting   down,   an   eagle   would   place   a   crown   upon   his   head,   and   a   dove   would   bring   him   a   Torah scroll. In   ancient   China,   a   curious   account   of   automation   is   found   in   the   Lie   Zi   text.   Within   it   there   is   a   description   of   a much   earlier   encounter   between   King   Mu   of   Zhou   (1023-957   BC)   and   a   mechanical   engineer   known   as   Yan   Shi,   an 'artificer' who presented the king with a life-size, human-shaped figure of his mechanical handiwork. There   are   similar   Chinese   accounts   of   flying   automata,   written   of   the   5 th C   BC   Mohist   philosopher   Mozi   and   his contemporary Lu Ban, who made artificial wooden birds (ma yuan) that could successfully fly. By   11 th C,   clockwork   was   used   for   both   timepieces   and   to   track   astronomical   events,   in   Europe. The   clocks   did   not keep   time   very   accurately   by   modern   standards,   but   the   astronomical   devices   were   carefully   used   to   predict   the positions of planets and other movement. Up   to   15 th C,   clockwork   was   driven   by   water,   weights,   or   other   relatively   primitive   means,   but   in   1430   a   clock   was presented   to   Philip   the   Good,   Duke   of   Burgundy,   that   was   driven   by   a   spring.   This   then   became   a   standard technology   along   with   weight-driven   movements.   In   the   mid   16 th C,   Christiaan   Huygens   took   an   idea   from   Galileo Galilei   and   developed   it   into   the   first   modern   pendulum   mechanism.   However,   whereas   the   spring   or   the   weight provided   the   motive   power,   the   pendulum   merely   controlled   the   rate   of   release   of   that   power   via   some   escape mechanism (an escapement) at a regulated rate. The   Smithsonian   Institution   has   in   its   collection   a   clockwork   monk,   about   15   in   (380   mm)   high,   possibly   dating   as early   as   1560.   The   monk   is   driven   by   a   key-wound   spring   and   walks   the   path   of   a   square,   striking   his   chest   with his   right   arm,   while   raising   and   lowering   a   small   wooden   cross   and   rosary   in   his   left   hand,   turning   and   nodding   his head,   rolling   his   eyes,   and   mouthing   silent   obsequies.   From   time   to   time,   he   brings   the   cross   to   his   lips   and   kisses it.   It   is   believed   that   the   monk   was   manufactured   by   Juanelo   Turriano,   mechanician   to   the   Holy   Roman   Emperor Charles V.
Taught/practised on: 2017 October 22 nd November 19 th
THE CLOCKWORK  (S8x32) Minnie Banninger  My Inspirations (2015)   1- 4 1s+2s   petronella   into   centre,   set   advancing,   finishing   B-to-B   with partners  5- 8 1L   &   2M   ½   turn   RH   to   face   each   other   &   petronella   turn   to   1L   in   2 nd   place   &   2M   in   1 st    place   own   sides,   while   1M   &   2L   dance   round clockwise to finish in new positions opposite partners  9-16 1s   cross   RH   down   between   3s,   cast   up,   cross   up   between   2s   &   cast off to finish LSh/LSh in centre facing opposite sides 17-24 2s+1L,   1M+3s   dance   RH   across,   1s   pull   RSh   back   &   turn   1¾   2H   to finish 2 nd  place own sides 25-32 2s,   1s   &   3s   dance   Corner   Pass   &   Turn,   1s   pass   RSh   from   sidelines towards   1 st    corner,   corners   turn   2H,   1s   pass   RSh   &   repeat   with   2 nd   corners, 1s pass RSh to finish in 2 nd  place